A recent journal looked at the mechanisms of craniofacial pain. The researchers worked to highlight peripheral and central adaptations that might promote chronification of pain in craniofacial pain states, including migraines and temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Pain is a common symptom that is associated with disorders of the craniofacial tissues, such as the teeth and their supporting structure, the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and the muscles of the head.
Most acute craniofacial pain conditions are easily recognized and well managed. However, others, especially those that are chronic such as migraines and TMD, present clinical challenges for dentists and physicians. While the mechanisms of chronic craniofacial pain in patients remains limited, both clinical and preclinical investigations suggest changes in afferent inputs to the brain occur in chronic pain. This results in amplification of nociception, which promotes and sustains chronic craniofacial pain states.
Through an increased understanding of the physiological and pathological processing of nociception in the trigeminal system, we can learn about new perspectives for the mechanistic understanding of acute craniofacial pain conditions. This also helps with the peripheral and central adaptations that are related to chronic pain. We can offer improvements in treatment for chronic and acute craniofacial pain conditions.
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